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PostPosted: Tue May 09, 2017 18:03 pm 
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The European Union Was An AMERICAN Idea
Posted on March 3, 2016 by WashingtonsBlog

A Unified Europe: Born In the USA

The former Bank of England head Mervyn King said this week that the “depression” in Europe “has happened almost as a deliberate act of policy”. Specifically, King said that the formation of the European Union has doomed Europe to economic malaise.

He points out that Greece is experiencing “a depression deeper than the United States experienced in the 1930s”.

Moreover – as Martin Armstrong has warned for decades – letting countries like Greece join he Euro without first structurally adjusting their debts was a recipe for disaster.

So it is fascinating to learn that the U.S. was largely behind the creation of both the European Union and the Euro.


The European Union: Funded By the CIA

Professor of International Security at the University of Warwick Richard J. Aldrich reviewed available historical documents, and concludes that the European Union was largely an American project:

US officials trying to rebuild and stabilize postwar Europe worked from the assumption that it required rapid unification, perhaps leading to a United States of Europe. The encouragement of European unification, one of the most consistent components of Harry S. Truman’s foreign policy, was even more strongly emphasized under his successor General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Moreover, under both Truman and Eisenhower, US policymakers conceived of European unification not only as an important end in itself, but also as a way to solve the German problem.’

***

One of the most interesting US covert operations in postwar Europe was the funding of the European Movement. The European Movement was an umbrella organization which led a prestigious, if disparate, group of organizations urging rapid unification in Europe, focusing their efforts upon the Council of Europe, and counting Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrad Adenauer, Leon Blum and Alcide de Gasperi as its five Presidents of Honour.

***

The discreet injection of over three million dollars between 1949 and 1960, mostly from US government sources, was central to efforts to drum up mass support for the Schuman Plan, the European Defence Community and a European Assembly with sovereign powers. This covert contribution never formed less than half the European Movement’s budget and, after 1952, probably two-thirds.

***

The conduit for American assistance was the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE), directed by senior figures from the American intelligence community. This body was organized in the early Summer of 1948 by Allen Welsh Dulles, then heading a committee reviewing the organization of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on behalf of the National Security Council (NSC), and also by William J. Donovan, former head of the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS) [predecessor to the CIA].

***

The International Organizations Division [a newly-established branch of the CIA] was also involved in the fourth type of US covert operation — provoking dissonance in the satellite states. This effort was channelled through the National Committee for a Free Europe, later known as the Free Europe Committee, which controlled Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Much of the work, done with the help of irascible exile groups under the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN), was coordinated by the CIA’s burgeoning Munich station, which also gave aid to resistance groups within eastern Europe.

***

The ACUE and its short-lived predecessor were only two of many `American’ and ‘Free’ committees established during 1948 and 1949. Well-documented examples include the National Committee for a Free Europe (later the Free Europe Committee) and the Free Asia Committee (later the Asia Foundation). The Free Europe Committee, formed in 1948 by the retired diplomat Joseph E. Grew at Kennan’s request, worked closely with the CIA to maintain contact between exile groups in the West and the Eastern bloc. Their campaign ‘to keep alive the hope of liberation in Eastern Europe’, was launched publicly in 1949 by the recently retired American military governor in Germany, General Lucius D. Clay.” The initial membership included many senior government figures such as the former Assistant Secretary of State, Adolphe Berle, Allen Dulles and ex-OSS personnel such as Frederic R. Dolbeare. The Free Europe Committee purported to draw its resources from private subscriptions and various foundations, but in reality the majority of its funds came from the US government through channels managed by the CIA.

***

The United States persuaded Britain and France to give the exile groups associate membership of the Council of Europe. A year later the White House endorsed State Department plans to accelerate these efforts. Outlining their proposals in a special guidance paper entitled ‘The Concept of Europe’, they admitted their concern that the main propaganda effort in the East lacked the `positive qualities which are necessary to arouse nations’. Several studies had been made in an attempt to find a positive concept and the themes of ‘European Unity’ and ‘Return to Europe’ might rectify this problem. Its ‘solely European’ nature ensured that it could not be `dismissed as another manoeuvre of “American imperialism”‘.

***

Unification was officially a central component of US policy — Congress had stipulated it as a condition of further Marshall Plan aid

***

The ACUE’s work in continental Europe during the early 1950s also focused increasingly upon propaganda and mass action

***

In 1951, the majority of ACUE funds for Europe were employed on a new venture — a unity campaign amongst European youth. Between 1951 and 1956 the European Movement organized over 2,000 rallies and festivals on the continent, particularly in Germany where they received the help of the US army. One of the additional advantages of deploying American funds on the large youth programmes was that it helped to disguise the extent to which the European Movement was dependent upon American funds. In May 1952 Spaak decided that funds from American sources that had previously been used in the ordinary budget of the European Movement would now be diverted for use in the ‘Special Budgets’ used to support their growing range of new programmes. This disguised their source and avoided any accusations of American dependency. Again, in November 1953, Baron Boel, the treasurer of the European Movement, explained that it was essential to avoid a situation where opponents of European unity could accuse them of being an American creation. For this reason ‘American money, quite acceptable for the European Youth Campaign and certain restricted activities, could not be used for the normal running of the Movement’. Through the use of `Special Budgets’, the large sums from American sources did not show up in the ordinary budget of the European Movement.”

***

As early as 1949, at the behest of Allen Dulles, the Ford Foundation was cooperating with the CIA on a number of European programmes.” By 1950, the ACUE and the Ford Foundation were coordinating their efforts to support federalism.” Moreover, by the mid-1950s, the senior figures who directed both overt and covert American support were increasingly synonymous. By 1953 both John J. McCloy and Shepard Stone, who had been instrumental in arranging for substantial covert government funds for the European Youth Campaign, were both on the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation. McCloy was also a director of the Rockefeller Foundation. By 1955, McCloy had become chairman of the Ford Foundation, while serving as chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations. Simultaneously, the same circle, including Retinger, McCloy, Allen Dulles, Harriman, David Rockefeller, Jackson and Bedell Smith were busy creating the Bilderberg Group, yet another organization that bridged the narrowing gaps between government, private and public organizations and between overt and covert on both sides of the Atlantic.”

***

Most ACUE funds originated with the CIA.

***

Mutual Security Agency [an American agency created by Congress] funds were also used to support the European Movement, indeed the Mutual Security Act of 1951 explicitly stated that its resources were to be used ‘to further encourage the economic and political federation of Europe’.’


A North American Created the Euro

This guy – Robert Mundell – is the father of the Euro:

Image


Not according to Guardian, Independent and BBC investigative journalist Greg Palast, who explained in his book Vulture’s Picnic:

Who spawned this cruel little bastard coin?

I called its parent, Professor Robert Mundell. Mundell is known as the Father of the Euro. The Euro is often spoken of as a means to unite post-war Europeans together emotionally and politically and to give this united Europe the economic power to compete with the U.S. economy.

That’s horseshit.

The Euro was invented in New York, New York, at Columbia University. Professor Mundell invented both the Euro and the guiding light of Thatcher-Reagan government: “Supply Side Economics” or, as George Bush Sr. accurately called it, “Voodoo Economics.” Reagan-Thatcher voodoo and the Euro are two sides of the same coin. (Ouch! Some puns hurt.)

Like the Iron Lady and President Gaga. the Euro is inflexible. That is, once you join the Euro, your nation cannot fight recession by using fiscal or monetary policy. That leaves “wage reduction, fiscal constraints (cutting government jobs and benefits) as the only recourse in crisis,” The Wall Street Journal explains with joy—and sell-offs of government property (privatizations).

Why the Euro, Professor? Dr. Mundell told me he was upset at zoning rules in Italy that did not allow him to put his commode where he wanted to in his villa there. “They’ve got rules that tell me I can’t have a toilet in this room. Can you imagine?”

I couldn’t really. I don’t have an Italian villa, so I cannot really imagine the burden of commode placement restriction.

The Euro will eventually allow you to put your toilet any damn place you want.

He meant that the only way the government can create jobs is to fire people, cut benefits, and, crucially, cut the rules and regulations that restrict business.

He told me: “Without fiscal policy, the only way nations can keep jobs is by the competitive reduction of rules on business.” Besides bowl location, he was talking about the labor laws, which raise the price of plumbers, environmental regulations, and, of course, taxes.

No, I am not making this up. And I am not saying the Euro was imposed on the Old Country just so the professor could place his toilet at a place of maximum pleasure. The Euro is fashioned as an anti-regulation straitjacket that would eliminate gallons-per-flush laws, flush away restrictive banking regulation, and all other government controls.

Now does the destruction of Greece’s sovereignty make a little more sense?

As Palast pointed out in the Guardian:

The idea that the euro has “failed” is dangerously naive. The euro is doing exactly what its progenitor – and the wealthy 1%-ers who adopted it – predicted and planned for it to do.

***

For him, the euro wasn’t about turning Europe into a powerful, unified economic unit. It was about Reagan and Thatcher.

***

And when crises arise, economically disarmed nations have little to do but wipe away government regulations wholesale, privatize state industries en masse, slash taxes and send the European welfare state down the drain.

***

Far from failing, the euro, which was Mundell’s baby, has succeeded probably beyond its progenitor’s wildest dreams.

In other words, the Euro was intended to impose a Shock Doctrine straightjacket on Europe, where the big banks are stripping Greece and other countries of their public assets, pillaging, plundering and looting them of their natural resources and wealth.

Update: After writing this post, we stumbled upon an article written in 2000 by the lead financial writer at the Telegraph, Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, noting:

Declassified American government documents show that the US intelligence community ran a campaign in the Fifties and Sixties to build momentum for a united Europe.

***

The head of the Ford Foundation, ex-OSS officer Paul Hoffman, doubled as head of ACUE in the late Fifties. The State Department also played a role. A memo from the European section, dated June 11, 1965, advises the vice-president of the European Economic Community, Robert Marjolin, to pursue monetary union by stealth.

It recommends suppressing debate until the point at which “adoption of such proposals would become virtually inescapable”.

* Mundell is Canadian. But having taught at American Universities for more than 50 years, we’re treating him as an honorary American. In any event, he created the Euro while at Columbia. In any event, what’s striking is that a North American – a not a European – created the Eurozone’s currency.


From : http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2016/03/european-union-american-idea.html


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PostPosted: Fri May 19, 2017 13:38 pm 
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Are the roots of the EU truly European?

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The European Union, we are told, was born at the end of the second world war of the will of the European peoples to put an end once and for all to the conflicts that devastated our continent twice in the twentieth century alone. One can declaim without blinking that a real project of perennial peace for our continent is an old dream of the peoples of Europe tired of the barbarity of the fratricidal wars. But is the completion of peace the only real motivation for this post-war European construction? Let's go back to the sources.

At the end of the Second World War Europe was bloodless, destroyed, ravaged. She no longer has any economy, she is orphaned by ideologies of salvation and she is distraught. In the immediate post-war period, Washington, which controls Western Europe, has a blue fear of Communists, who control Eastern Europe. Communism is all the more threatening to America because it remains very popular in many Western European countries such as France, Greece and Italy. Washington is not necessarily worried about what communism represents as an ideology but for what it represents as a threat to its economic and financial interests in the world. The Cold War, contrary to what some believe is not primarily ideological but commercial. To this end the US must imperatively include Western Europe in their sphere of political influence and they have a definite project for it. For the French historian Annie Lacroix-Riz: "After 1945, the United States set the terms for the creation of an integrated Western Europe: they wanted to build a" customs union ", a giant European market from the start Protection against their competition. "

Thus the Americans who will increase the number of their soldiers in Europe from 278,000 in 1946 to 357,000 in 1955 will benefit from their position as a victorious, powerful and rich nation to shape Europe and the non-communist world in their own way. As early as 1944, even before the end of the war, the Americans announced the new international monetary gap after the signing of the Bretton Woods agreements, which would make the dollar the world's currency and set up the World Bank and the IMF. In 1947 the US initiated the first GATT movements on international customs agreements. In the same year, US Secretary of State George Marshall launched a $ 13 billion (equivalent to about $ 150 billion today) plan to raise loans and donations to rebuild Europe. Nothing is free in this world, as you all know, and to benefit from this American manna there are rules: one must buy American of course and one must follow scrupulously the process of European construction wanted by Washington. According to British journalist Christopher Booker, the European Union is an "obsession" for the US Secretary of State.

In 1947 the American Senators Fulbright and Thomas and Congressman Hale Boggs were already calling for the creation of the "United States of Europe". In 1949 the Americans will create NATO six years before the Warsaw Pact and that same year they will create the ACUE.

The ACUE is the American Committee on United Europe, the American Committee for a United Europe, a non-governmental organization whose aim is to distil the message of the European Union among the elites of the old continent and To distribute to the pro-European associations the money it recovers via foundations like Ford or Rockefeller or with industrialists close to the US government. Officially the ACUE is not a state agency but curiously the ACUE will pullulate former US agents. Its president will be William Donovan creator during the Second World War of the Office of Strategic Services (ie the OSS, the ancestor of the CIA), the vice president of the ACUE is Walter Bedel Smith former chief Eisenhower's General Staff and American Ambassador to Moscow who later became the CIA's patron in 1950. Other members include Allen Dulles, head of the OSS in Berne during the Second World War, Also president of the CIA in 1953 and whose brother John-Foster Dulles was one of Jean Monnet's closest friends. Paul Hoffman ex-head of the Ford Foundation and former OSS officer will later be found at the head of the CUA. As you see, we are very far from a philanthropic boy scout club whose goal would be just peace and happiness between the peoples of the old continent. It is a screening organization of American services and on January 5, 1949 Allen Dulles will bluntly declare that its objective is "to raise funds to help the European movements that work for the union. "



The ACUE will in all discretely subsidize the equivalent of 50 million euros the federalist movements working for European integration. The French journalist Rémi Kaufer talks about the financing of the European Union as "one of the compartments of the Cold War". Among the movements financed by the ACUE we will find the most important as the European Movement but also the European Union of Federalists or the Socialist Movement for the United States of Europe (sic) as well as influential magazines like The Economist. It is also thanks to the funds of the ACUE that the first meetings of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg or the Action Committee for the European Constituent Assembly will be financed, which will become the Action Committee for the European supranational Community, Created in 1952 at the instigation of Paul-Henri Spaak former President of the United Nations General Assembly before becoming Secretary General of NATO in 1957.



So the USA was not going to invent the European Union, this theme was already popular among some of the pre-war European elite: Richard Coudenhove Kalergi wrote Pan Europa in 1922, in 1925 Edouard Herriot delivered a speech on the United States, The United States of Europe in the Chamber of Deputies. The Nobel Peace Prize Aristide Briand speaks of a federal link between the peoples of Europe in 1929 to the League of Nations and Winston Churchill himself will be the ardent defender of the United States of Europe.

This idea is also widespread among industrialists: Giovanni Agnelli, founder of the FIAT empire, wrote in 1918 a book "European federation or league of nations" and the work of the historian Annie Lacroix-Riz demonstrate whether it was needed The major role of the cartels in the creation of the European Union long before the Second World War and their desire for a European construction to create a larger market in order to better share the cake. Moreover, it is the major European industrialists who will benefit from the American manna of the Marshall Plan and who will collaborate with the numerous US multinationals that have come to settle in Europe. These American companies will in turn invest massively in European lobbying to reconcile the standards of the European market as Marcel Gauchet recalls in "Understanding the French misfortune". Despite this, there is still some reluctance to this European construction, especially in France and Great Britain.



Washington has known since its interventions in Central America and South America or the Philippines that to subdue a country it is better to colonize its elites than to colonize the country itself: it costs less than a territorial occupation and it pays much more . The American tactic to advance this European construction subtly while secretly financing it will be based on close collaboration with men who, while claiming their profession of European faith, will in fact systematically defend the American version of the European project.

General de Gaulle will perceive this threat from across the Atlantic very well. According to Jacques Peyrefitte in 1962 the General told him: "The big problem ... is American imperialism. The problem is within us, among our ruling classes, among those of neighboring countries. He is in the heads.Many French and European politicians will indeed be cajoled and promoted by the US to start with the founding father of Europe in person Jean Monnet. Monnet is the former deputy secretary-general of the SDN, a wealthy banker who made his fortune with America. He has an impressive address book and fricot more with the Anglo-Saxons than with the French. He is a notorious anti-Gaullist, and moreover he will be Roosevelt's envoy to General Girault in Africa during the Second World War before becoming President of the ECSC in 1951. Monnet, the father of modern Europe is simply An American agent for Marie-France Garaud and General de Gaulle will say of him in a statement to Alain Peyrefitte in 1963: "Integrated Europe, it could not suit France or the French .... Except to a few patients like Jean Monnet, who are above all anxious to serve the United States. [5] Other European politicians are working for Washington. British ambassador Ambrose Evans-Pritchard said: "The leaders of the European Movement, such as the visionary Robert Schuman and former Belgian Prime Minister Paul-Henri Spaak, were all treated by their American lenders as stipendiaries . "

Robert Schuman is often presented as the other "father of Europe". The declaration which bears his name of 9 May 1950 on the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community is considered one of the founding acts of modern Europe because it gave birth to the first of the supranational European institutions. But few know that Schuman threw this idea under the influence of Washington, who wanted at all costs to forge Europe on a strong rapprochement between Germany and France which de Gaulle absolutely did not want. For the French journalist Florence Autret, an expert on European affairs, there is an active and decisive role for American diplomacy in the negotiations leading from the Schuman Plan to the birth of the ECSC.



We have access to a large number of archives today, and the work of British Professor Richard J. Aldrich leads us to conclude that while a united Europe is indeed a European dream, the European Union is clearly an American project.

Our famous Brussels European Union is the natural child of European idealists who rightly dreamed of building a long-term peace project for our continent but had to rely on injunctions, funding, armaments, communication, The advice and cunning of Washington and unscrupulous businessmen of the real interest of the peoples of Europe to achieve it.

We know today that this project was part of a more systemic plan of political and economic globalization with Washington as the center of gravity of a new hegemonic and unipolar world order. In 1952 already the ACUE launched a project on federalism at Harvard University led by the German-born but naturalized American political scientist Carl Friedrich, who previously headed the institution responsible for the early training of the military governors of the various liberated countries ( School for Overseas Administration). For Carl Friedrich, European unity was a precious idea in itself but was only a step towards world federalism.



This pauperized, supranational and a democratic Europe is now out of breath. It has become a techno-structure serving senior officials and oligarchs completely disconnected from the real country. The crises that strike us must prompt us to distance ourselves quickly with this version of Europe without abandoning the idea of ​​Europe which must be rethought differently. From Brest to Vladivostok, drawing deeply from our Hellenic-Christian roots we must rebuild healthy relations between all European nations without exception on the basis of the sovereign will of the peoples and respect for the principle of subsidiarity.The American people are not our enemies but the time has come to tell the deep state that governs Washington that Europe is neither an American protectorate nor a supermarket, it is a civilization.


Translated from French on the website "Stratpol" (Political-Strategic Analysis Center): http://www.stratpol.com/origines-ue-vraiment-europeenes

Stratpol provides political, strategic and economic analysis on all zones, countries and continents, in order to allow realistic prospects. The site is aimed at students and researchers, as well as policy-makers and economic actors.


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PostPosted: Mon Mar 05, 2018 18:17 pm 
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"The supranational Europe, it is Europe under American command.

Germans, Italians, Belgians,
The Netherlands are dominated by Americans.
The English too, but in another way,
because they are from the same family.

Then there is only France that is not dominated.
To dominate it too, we are eager to want
get it into a supranational thing
to Washington's orders. "


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Charles De Gaulle. President of France (8 January 1959 – 28 April 1969)


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PostPosted: Tue Mar 06, 2018 10:19 am 
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The EU is a globalists idea; not American.


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PostPosted: Tue Mar 06, 2018 11:59 am 
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But America is under globalists command..."The American Deep State".

Drawing on more than four decades of research, Peter Dale Scott offers us an unpublished analysis of the "deep American state", an informal and unrecognized system, whose influence on contemporary history is absolutely major. Outside the legal framework, it secretly, often illegally, conditions the official state policies in Washington - or even contradicts or neutralizes them. A prominent political observer, Scott describes the growing militarization process in the United States, particularly since 9/11. It also explains the origin of the "security drift" (illegal surveillance and surveillance, massive arbitrary detentions, the use of torture, targeted killings) and the increase in income inequality that this country has experienced since the Vietnam War.

The deep state is now a quasi-institutionalized system in agencies (such as the CIA and the NSA) that escape democratic control. But it is not limited to these secret services, and the author describes the excessive influence of private companies such as Booz Allen Hamilton (the former employer of Edward Snowden) and SAIC, 70% of the budgets of the Intelligence in the United States being today outsourced. Behind this opaque system, where the distinction between "public" and "private" seems at best tenuous, it traces the traditional influence of bankers and lawyers on Wall Street allied to "supermajors", the largest international oil companies. He explains how the petro-monarchies of the Persian Gulf, the US defense companies and Wall Street have formed together, and progressively, a deep supranational state - one that pursues policies that are sometimes radically opposed to the national interests of the United States, its people and its institutions.

See his book : https://www.amazon.com/American-Deep-State-Struggle-Democracy/dp/1442214252/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8

About the deep state, you have this video from Alex Jones:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=VDYBvX2SDOo


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PostPosted: Tue Mar 06, 2018 23:12 pm 
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And so is Europe.


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PostPosted: Wed Mar 07, 2018 11:14 am 
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Yes too. That's why we have to fight against these stateless globalists.

In your country it is not the president who gives directives but

it's the heavy bureaucracy of the deep state... That's why Trump has

difficulties to apply what he promised to do during the elections...


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PostPosted: Wed Mar 07, 2018 20:19 pm 
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Who gives a F about the EU. :roll:
We are Americans here!

Best Regards,
Pappy

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PostPosted: Fri Mar 09, 2018 13:06 pm 
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The American people are not our enemies but the time has come to tell the deep state that governs Washington that Europe is neither an American protectorate nor a supermarket, it is a civilization.We make the world great again.


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PostPosted: Mon Mar 12, 2018 19:02 pm 
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mlad is just to stupid to figure out how irrelevant he truly is...

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PostPosted: Mon Mar 12, 2018 19:37 pm 
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As usual, CAG Hotshot speaks to say nothing interesting ...


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PostPosted: Sat Feb 01, 2020 11:59 am 
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Feb 1 2020 - UK Freedom Day

Nigel Farage's last historic speech to the EU (subtitled in French):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=8&v=ptO-3qgQq8Q&feature=emb_logo

Peace, prosperity and friendship with all nations

Thank you Brits!

Cordially

mlad


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